Temos aqui artigos selecionados, elaborados e especialmente oferecidos a nosso site por William Parkinson exímio fotógrafo e ativo colecionador de câmaras e pesquisador da história da indústria fotográfica da Rússia e da União Soviética e membro colaborador do fórum URSSPhoto.com.

Foram mantidos os textos originais.

Adaptação e formatação por L. Paracampo.

Com nossos agradecimentos.

O site de William Parkinson é www.nightphoto.com 


First FED Camera / Proletarskoe Foto 1933

The announcement of the original "Russian Leica", the first FED 35mm camera, was made in January 1933 in issue #1 of Proletarian Photo magazine. Here are photos of the covers of the magazine, the article announcing the FED, and some other interesting pages of this historic issue. Only about 30 of these cameras were made by the F.E. Dzerjinski Communards, and so far as we know, none are known to exist in collections. This magazine is in my collection.


more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/firstfed.html   













Foto-Goz / Sovetskoe Foto 1927

This article about the Foto-Goz, the first Soviet camera constructed in a state factory and the first Soviet camera to use perforated 35mm film, was published in the a 1927 issue of Soviet Photo magazine (No. 6). Here are photos of the covers of the magazine, the article about the Foto-Goz, and some other interesting pages from this issue. Interesting to note are the included details the accessory projection equipment and the interchangeable magazine inset of the camera. Notice an advertisement from EFTE and some beautiful gravure photographs of a Siberian expedition. There are no known examples of Foto-Goz in collections, as far as I know. This magazine is in my collection.

Many of the earlier issues of Sovetskoe Foto and Proletarskoe Foto magazines are illustrated with actual high-quality gravure prints of Russian photography, however the quality of the paper is unfortunately low (newsprint). Later issues used offset printing.


more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/goz.html














FAG Geodeziya / Sovetskoe Foto 1934

This article, about the 'FAG' Geodeziya, made at the Geodeziya Zavod in Moscow, in small quantities during 1934 - 1935, appeared in the No. 6 issue of Sovetskoe Foto magazine of 1934. Here are photos of the covers of the magazine and the article about this "Russian Leica". This magazine is in my collection.

Only about 100 of these cameras, which are almost identical to the VOOMP Pioneer, were made, and some examples do exist in collections today. Production of both the VOOMP and the FAG Geodeziya was ended and the FED Commune became the predominant manufacturer of Leica II copies in the
USSR during the pre-World War II years.

more photos at:  http://www.nightphoto.com/fag.html 
















Nota para o leitor: Esta Cyclocamera demonstra a popularidade do 35mm na Rússia bem antes de sua larga difusão no Ocidente.


Cyclocamera ..... Horizontal Box Camera / circa 1935 wooden housing construction 24x24 mm frame on standard 35 mm film (perforated / special darkroom loading cassette)
 Meniscus lens 38mm from “Liliput” camera .... reflex viewer with lens & ground glass .... shutter: 1/50 & B
diaphrams on rotating disc: f.6.3 & f 9.6 .... film advance with push pull claw mechanism.
Concieved by S. Charov and produced by the Artel Novaya Shkola (New School Workshop),
Leningrad, USSR
measures 4" x 2.75" x 1.75" (10cm x 7cm x
4.5 cm)

Notes: The diamond-shaped logo of the “Artel” is impressed into the back of the leatherette covering. This workshop was also a photography school and these cameras were made for students, children and beginning adult photographers. When you pull the sliding metallic foil on the side on the left camera side near the viewfinder, a capping mechanism opens to allow exposure when the shutter is tripped. When the lever is pushed back, the film advances through a double claw system. The two small levers on the top are the shutter release and aperture adjuster. The small lever on the side is the shutter setting.


more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/cyclo.html










FED Exposure Meter

FED ..... Selenium Light Meter ..... Chrome, glass, celluloid.
factory : FED, Kharkov, USSR .... year :1938 .... serial # : E-3828

notes: This light meter just 1 1/8" tall, with a diameter of 2". It weighs just under 8 oz. It has a selenium cell, covered with glass on one side and a curved celluloid window to view the meter. Engraved guides for: Film speeds of 100 to 1600 (old H & D exposure system speeds) ... Times from 8 minutes to 1/1000 second ... Aperture settings of f:1.5 to f:18. This meter has its factory original, fabric-covered, felt-lined inner box and outer box. The outer box has Cyrillic writing in pen on the inside lid, which reads: "Exposure meter 1222/300". This light meter was bought during World War II, along with a FED camera, by American photographer, C. L. Sands, and bears his name on the top lid of the outer box. The meter reacts only slightly to strong light due to a worn out selenium cell.


more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/fedex.html











FED - 1 / 1935

FED -1a ...... coupled rangefinder / Leica II copy ..... 35 mm perforated film
Body serial # 5340 .... lens: FED - 50 mm f.3.5 / serial # 5507
factory : F. E. Dzerzhinsky Labour Commune (FED) / Kharkov, USSR ...... year of production: 1935

Notes: This camera was produced less than a year from the start of the FED Commune's production of Leica copies. Several times during 1935, when the factory's supply of chrome ran out, the top plate, bottom plate and rangefinder housing were finished by hand with a very small, mechanical rotating metal polisher. This left beautiful tiny circular brushed marks in the metal that shimmer in the light, giving the effect of a fine laboratory instrument. This camera has that finish, as well as the original leather case with a fine old patina.

more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/5340.html










FED -1-S / 1938

FED -1c - S ...... coupled rangefinder / Leica II copy ..... 35 mm perforated film
Body serial # 59274 .... lens: FED - 50 mm f.2.0 / serial # 22657
factory : F. E. Dzerzhinsky Labour Commune (FED) / Kharkov, USSR ...... year of production: 1938

Notes: This camera has the top speed of 1/1000 of a second and the faster F. 2.0 / 50 mm lens.
This model of FED-1 was designated "S" by the factory and possibly 2,000 or fewer units of this model were made between 1938-1941 according to Princelle.
With original leather case

more photos at: http://www.nightphoto.com/feds.html





  H & D Hurter & Driffield. Primeiro padrão proposto para sensibilidade das emulsões fotográficas. Foi divulgado em 1890 mas logo foi superado pelo metodologia proposta por Scheiner que é uma proposta menos empírica.


Foram padronizados os H&D e o H&D* conhecidos respectivamente como "American & British H&D". Na Europa, foi também usual o H&D** ou "Continental H&D" que foi o mais divulgado. O British H&D tornou-se o padrão BS O American H&D foi totalmente revisado e tornou-se o conhecido padrão ASA. O Continental H&D também revisado tornou-se o DIN.

O padrão Continental H&D era o utilizado na Rússia até 1940.


Abaixo tabela dos valores originais H&D versus os atuais ISO.